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carried out as part of Aakraman Exercises where      Small Turbo Fan Engine (STFE)
the AEW&C controlled fighters were deployed
against AWACS controlled fighters. Two of the             DRDO is involved in the development of
missions at Agra were long duration missions         technologies for indigenous STFE. It is proposed to
of 6-7 hours. These missions were carried out        develop 5 engine sets for development testing and
with air-to-air refueling of the AEW&C system,       3 engine sets for Nirbhay integration to be realised
which is the first on Embraer class AEW&C            by M/s BrahMos Aerospace Thiruvananthapuram
aircraft. Vice Chief of Air Staff (VCAS) flew        Limited (M/s BATL). Three prototypes (T1, T2,
and evaluated the 18th LFEs at Delhi. Another        & T3) have been realised. During the year,
milestone event of the year was that AEW&C           98% indigenous content in STFE was achieved.
aircraft flew for the first time in the Republic     Pyro devices (pyro ignitor, pyro gas generator,
Day Parade 2017.                                     and pyro valve) were demonstrated for design
                                                     validation test. Digital Engine Control Unit
Kaveri Engine                                        (DECU) has been demonstrated for Limited
                                                     Qualification Test (LQT). High-speed alternator
                                     Kaveri Engine   was demonstrated for its endurance of 2 hours
                                                     continuous at 50,000 rpm under full load condition.
     Kaveri engine was designed and developed        Fuel Injection System (FIS) was demonstrated
for LCA Tejas aircraft. Nine prototypes of Kaveri    for its full potential. New infrastructure for
engines and four prototypes of Kaveri core           High Altitude Starting Test (HAST) was realised
engines have been realised so far. During 2017,      and transported to Leh and initial tests were
five prototype Kaveri engines viz., K5, K6, K7,      completed.
K8, and K9 were tested. About 145 hours of
testing was completed during the year. Some          Anti-Icing System of a Gas Turbine Engine
critical and severe tests like, transient test from
idle to max reheat condition, were carried out            The main objective of this project is to
for the first time. Engine tests were carried        develop the capability to design a certified
out under installed condition, i.e., with power      anti-icing system for any state-of-the-art gas
off-take, customer bleed as well as with inlet       turbine engine inlet for manned/unmanned
distortion. M/s Safran Aircraft Engines (M/s         applications. During the year, heat transfer rig
SAE), France carried out technical audit on          experiments for pressure loss characteristics
Kaveri engine development and submitted the          of the designed heating configuration were
report. The audit stated that Kaveri engine had      carried out and a satisfactory match between
attained sufficient level of maturity for carrying   experiments and predictions has been obtained.
out limited envelope flight test integrated with     Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies
aircraft.                                            for icing characteristics of the fan inlet casing
                                                     have been completed wherein the collection
                                                     coefficients of the fan inlet casing components,
                                                     struts and bullet nose, have been predicted.
                                                     Methodology for fabrication of the test article
                                                     for icing tunnel tests has been finalised and
                                                     fabrication of test article is to be taken up.

                                                     New Fan with High Inlet Pressure Distortion

                                                          The high maneuverability combined with
                                                     stealth requirements impose very high inlet
                                                     pressure distortion at the engine inlet. The fan,
                                                     being the first component in a gas turbine engine,
                                                     is subjected to this high inlet distortion which
                                                     causes severe surge margin loss. The increased

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