Major Products

CAIR has developed and provided a number of technological solutions/ products for both the defence and the civilian sector. Some of these products are:

  1. Products for the Defence Sector

    1. Wireless Message Transfer Unit (WMTU):- The Wireless Message Transfer Unit allows mobile commanders to have access to communication networks. It has also proved to be useful for Progressive Image Transmission (PIT).


    3. Security solutions for RF, Wired Communications and Computers: - Number of High Grade Communication Security Solutions (BEUs, L2-Encryptors, Subscriber End Security for SATCOM Networks, PSTN and IP Networks, etc) were delivered to the Defence services and other sensitive GoI Agencies. Technologies are being developed for analysis and detection of adversary activities and robust protection and response mechanisms at all layers of computing and communication. Capabilities are being continuously enhanced to develop solutions for safe use of off-the-shelf components/sub-systems for realization of trustworthy solutions.
    4. Command Information and Decision Support System (CIDSS):- The Command Information and Decision Support System facilitates storage, retrieval, processing (filtering, correlation, fusion) and visualization of tactical data and provide effective decision support to the commanders.
    5. Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC & RS):- The Air Defence Control and Reporting System (ADC & RS) is used to detect all aerial targets and neutralize the threat well away from the vulnerable area/vulnerable point (VA/VP) by effective integration of all AD Weapon Systems.
    6. Robots for non-destructive testing of composite parts of Light Combat Aircraft (Tejas):- Robot manipulator arm has been developed for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of composite parts of Light Combat Aircraft (LCA).

    8. Digital Trunk Unit (DTU):- The Digital Trunk Unit provides digital interface for the voice Trunks of the local exchange TIDEX to the Trunk exchange AES of the AREN communication network.
    9. Data Concentrator (DC):- The Data Concentrator is used to enhance data communication capability of AREN grid, to provide AREN-ASCON integration for data calls, and, to provide data communication facility in isolation of AREN-ASCON networks.


    11. Time Division Multiplex Exchange (TIDEX):- Time Division Multiplex Exchange is an all digital exchange and serves as a mobile automatic telephone exchange, specially designed to work over Army Radio Engineered Network (AREN). It provides automatic switching for Subscriber, Grid Trunks and Universal Junction.

    13. Automatic Electronic Switch (AES):- The Automatic Electronic Switch (AES) provides automatic trunk switching facilities for voice, teleprinter, and computer data. It is a stored program trunk exchange used as a node switch in an Area Grid Tactical Communication Network which provides automatic, fast, secure and reliable communication.


    15. Artillery Combat Command and Control System (ACCCS):- Artillery Combat Command and Control System serves to automate field artillery in the areas of trajectory computation and communication with secrecy.
    16. Radio Local System (RLS):- Radio Local System serves to extend the facilities of TIDEX or any field automatic exchange to a remote Radio Local Extension (RLE) where laying of telephone cables is difficult (across a river, hilly terrain etc) or when the communication needs to be set-up in a short period of time.


    18. Radio Trunk System (RTS):- A full Duplex, Mobile Radio Telephone System to provide extension of six Trunk lines over duplex RF channels in a grid communication network. RTS consists of Radio Trunk Central (RTC) that functions as a Radio exchange, and Radio Trunk Extensions (RTE) that functions as mobile subscribers.

    b. Technologies Developed
    Families of robots have been developed for various surveillance / reconnaissance applications listed below:

    1. Autonomous Navigation System
    2. The Autonomous Navigation System (ANS) established on the in-house tracked test-platform was ported to the teleported BMP-II and successful summer tests were conducted at the Mahajan Field Firing Range (MFFR).

    3. Robot Sentry
    4. This robot can be used for patrolling inside any campus in an urban scenario.
    5. Autonomous Search Robot
    6. Autonomous Search Robot can perform 3D mapping of an indoor area on its own. In addition to localization, mapping, and path planning, it employs an exploration algorithm which searches for all unknown areas until they have been mapped. Apart from a LiDAR, it uses a RGB-D sensor for 3D depth data capture. With the help of these sensors this robot can indentify 3D obstacles and avoid them during navigation. It can continuously create a 3D map of the indoor scene, which is displayed on a remote user device. The user can select an object to be searched, which are then marked by the robot when they are found in the scene. It uses algorithms for object detection to perform the search. The user can fly through the map and interactively locate searched objects in the map.
      The Autonomous Search Robot is useful for indoor counter insurgency operations, search and rescue operations, and remote mapping of indoor environments with NBC hazard, when mounted with a NBC sensor.

    7. Miniature UGV (MINIUGV)
    8. The MINIUGV is a remotely controlled, man portable, tracked robot, for surveillance and reconnaissance in low intensity conflict operations in an urban scenario
    9. Mini MULE
    10. The MINIMULE (Miniature Multifunction Utility Logistics Equipment) is a preliminary proof of concept of hybrid locomotion mechanisms. The robot has four legs and actuated wheels instead of feet.

    11. Snake Robot
    12. This robot demonstrates concepts of whole body locomotion. The snake robot has 14 active joints. Lateral undulation, side winding, and rolling gaits have been implemented on this robot. A color camera mounted in the hood of this robot provides video feedback.

    13. Wall climbing Robot
    14. The wall climbing robot is a miniature tracked robot capable of climbing vertical walls. It uses an impeller to generate suction to adhere to walls. It has an onboard colour camera for video feedback. The camera is mounted on pan-tilt unit.

    15. Omni Hexbot
    16. This is a miniature six legged robot with three degree of freedom to each leg for enabling motion in any direction
    c. Products for the Civilian Sector:
    • CAIR_ICR, an Intelligent Character Recognition system for the automated processing of application forms with handwritten entries.
    • Intelligent wheel chair for the physically challenged persons: - A low cost, semi-automatic, motorized wheel chair.
    • Simulator based Laparoscopic surgery trainer based on VR and Haptics.
    • Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm or Selective Compliant Articulated Robot Arm (SCARA) for educational institutions. The design focuses on low-cost manufacturing versatile actuation technologies, safety and open customized servo loops, kinematic calculations, and trajectory generation schemes, greatly aiding students in understanding fundamentals of robotic systems.
    • Robots for hot slug handling: - A six axes articulated robotic system developed for NMRL for the transfer of a 600 degree Celsius hot slug from an induction furnace to a die casting machine.
    • Robot for inspection of steam generator tubes of power plants.
    • Language Independent Speaker Identification System (LISIS), functioning as the name suggests, for Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL), Chandigarh.

    Major Technologies

    Technology focus areas at CAIR

    CAIR’s product development efforts are based on continued nurturing of core competence in relevant technology areas.

    1. Net Centric Systems for Tactical Command Control & Communication Systems
    2. Today’s battlefield is characterized by fast tempo and high degree of movement of men and material on a wide front. This demands rapid acquisition, dissemination, collation and fusion of information amongst field commanders involved in tactical planning and battlefield operations. In this scenario, decision making is a time-sensitive and complex operation due to the need for processing multiple streams of high rate data (which could be representing any combination of text, audio and video) originating from various geographically separated sources. This scenario exists even during peacetime operations also, perhaps with less stringent requirements.

      Command Control Communication and Intelligence (C3I) System consisting of networked computers in the tactical battle area facilitates comprehensive situation awareness by the commanders for timely and optimum decision-making.
      CAIR has developed a series of C3I systems for the different branches of Indian Army. The specific technical domains that have contributed to this effort are:

      1. Communication and Networking
      2. CAIR is engaged in developing technologies needed for futuristic tactical communication network for the Indian Army. The lab is assisting the user in specifying the system architecture and the subsystem specifications for their futuristic Tactical Communication System (TCS). Preliminary R&D activity has been launched in anticipation of the Government of India sanction of a major program for the development of TCS.


      3. Geographical Information System (GIS)
      4. INDIGIS is an indigenously developed geographical Information system for military applications. INDIGIS helps in visualization, analysis and measurements of spatial objects such as digital vector maps, satellite images, digital elevation models and bathymetric data in the form of electronic navigation charts.

      5. Signal Processing
      6. Signal processing is an important activity at CAIR, with emphasis on speech signal processing. In the area of speech coding, a Linear Predictive Coder (LPC) based voice coder that encodes 4 kHz band limited telephone quality analogue speech into a 2.4 kbps digital stream has been developed. In the area of Automatic speech processing, solutions for speaker independent speech recognition and language independent speaker identification have been developed and continue to be active areas of work.

      7. Adhoc Networks
      8. The Ad-hoc Networks are wireless, infrastructure less, decentralized (unlike cellular networks) and consist of nodes which are capable of executing computations and data exchanges amongst their peers. Hence nodes in an Ad-hoc network function very much like a router in a conventional computer network.

        Two important ad-hoc networks of use in military scenario are Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The former is characterized by the high mobility of nodes providing data/voice communication amongst nodes while the latter is a relatively static network with its nodes equipped with sensors whose choice depends on the application.

        MANETs and WSNs throw several challenges to those involved in their design. MANETs require complex routing strategy to provide highly reliable communication amongst the nodes. In the case of WSNs the challenge lies in routing under severely constrained energy availability.

        Security is a very important issue in both MANETs and WSNs particularly in those which are employed in military applications. Providing security in these networks involves addressing challenges such as unauthorized network access, man in the middle attack, denial of service, key generation and distribution etc.

        R&D efforts at CAIR are directed towards realization of feasible, reliable, secure MANETs and WSNs. Many of the challenges have been successfully addressed by scientists working on the associated projects.

    3. Intelligent Systems and Unmanned Systems

      CAIR is working in the field of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, Computer Vision Processing and Artificial Intelligence. CAIR has developed various multipurpose robots including industrial grade capability robots and futuristic research oriented robotic platforms. CAIR has been involved in the research and development activities in the area of computer vision. A comprehensive library for image and video processing techniques has been developed. This library comprises algorithms for image/video enhancement, registration, geo-coding, multi sensor image/video fusion, mosaicing, 3D  reconstruction, segmentation, view point alteration, optical flow, depth from stereo, steganography,  video segmentation, video synopsis, content based retrieval (using 2D and 3D transform domain techniques and visual words) and activity analysis. Prototypes have been developed using this library to demonstrate few of its capabilities such as fusion, registration, content based image retrieval (CBIR) and long term relevance feedback based CBIR. An image map display system has been developed to overlay images on maps at various resolutions. CAIR is focused towards establishing Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies which can be applied for the rich problem areas in the military domain. Towards this end, CAIR has established a comprehensive data-mining toolbox, with a large number of data mining algorithms, which can be used in different problem spaces. Knowledge management of Text and Speech documents is an effort towards performing automated understanding and analysis of text and speech inputs using Natural Language processing. Information Extraction (IE) is performed using a rich Natural Language Text Processing (NLTP) library. Online search facility, Querying, Knowledge Visualization, Social network Analysis (SNA) and Summary Generation are other notable features of this effort. Semantic Web is the pervasive technology which gels harmoniously with the distributed processing and multi agent paradigms. These paradigms are important for working with huge datasets and multi-behavioral and context driven scenarios. Towards this end, CAIR has established a decision support system (DSS) framework, which is completely driven by knowledge base maintained as ontologies. Algorithms like Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM), Swarm Algorithms, Game theoretic approaches towards resource allocation, Search algorithms etc. built on the distributed framework of Hadoop, support in giving “intelligent” and informed solutions. This framework has been used for providing Decision Support for Deployment, Transport Allocation, Convoy composition and scheduling and Coastal Surveillance. To provide for a completely decoupled distributed solution, CAIR is working towards a semantically enabled service oriented architectural framework. CAIR has also made significant effort in establishing AI algorithms for path planning, Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), Object detection and recognition, and task coordination for mobile platforms. CAIR has been involved in the development of technologies for realizing industrial and mobile robots. Dedicated technologies have to be established to address the unique constraints imposed by the two types of robotics systems. Accordingly, specific endeavor meets this requirement.

    5. Information Security

    6. Communication Security
      CAIR has developed a wide range of communication security systems for securing speech, fax or data that can be transmitted over leased lines, telephone lines, IP Networks, radio links, satellite terminals, frame relay networks, fiber optic networks supporting a wide bit rate of operations from few Kbps up to Gigabits/sec etc. These systems are built on custom hardware platforms encrypting at wire-line speed with minimal latency and overheads.

      Cyber Security
      Information security aims at securing confidentiality and integrity of the data stored in computers and communicated over networks. CAIR has been working on the following areas in this field:

      Secure Communication, Authentication (including speech biometrics), Network access control, Traffic analysis and network Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS).

      CAIR has brought out a number of specific products/ solutions in the above areas and has successfully delivered to the different user communities. These include High speed traffic analysis software, Secure e-mail, Information security gateway, IP security, Network and Host Intrusion Detection Systems, On-line disk encryption (Secure Storage), Smart card based authentication, Multi-layer network Firewall, Personal (host) firewall, etc.